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机械

发布日期: 2013年05月08日

自动、半自动车床车工安全操作规程
Safe Operation Rules of Automatic & Semi-automatic Lathe and Operators

1.工作前,检查设备保险装置和防护装置应完好可靠,各机构运转正常,方可工作。
1. Before operation, check protecting devices and protective devices of the equipment are in good condition, and all parts operate normally.
2.分配轴上的曲线块片要紧固牢靠。分配轴、溜板在手动后要检查是否复位在恰当位置,以免卡死曲线鼓发生事故。
2. The curving piece on the distributing shaft should be fastened. Check whether the distributing shaft and the guide block are restored to right positions when started by hand, in order to avoid the curving drum to be struck and accidents.
3.手摇分配轴或拆装调整各运动部位时,必须切断电源,以免机动突发而造成事故。
3. When operating the distributing shaft by hand or removing and adjusting all moving parts, cut off the power for avoiding accidents caused by the operation of the machine.
4.气动卡盘所需要的空气压力不能低于说明书规定值。
4. The air pressure required by the pneumatic chuck should not be less than the value specified by the specification.
5.装卡盘时,要检查卡爪、卡盘有无缺陷,不符合安全要求禁止使用。严禁开车装卸卡盘。
5. When the chuck is installed, check whether the claw and the chuck have defects. They should not be used if they are in non-compliance with safety requirement. It is prohibited to load and unload the chuck during operation.
6.装工件时,必须放正,夹料时卡子和材料直径要合适,并把卡子伸缩行程调整到能够使工件紧固在车头的位置上,以防材料吃力时退缩发生危险。
6. When workpieces are installed, place them straight; when materials are clamped, the width of the clip should be the same as the diameter of materials, and the flexible travel of the clip is adjusted to the position where workpieces can be fastened to the head, in order to avoid dangers caused by the shrink of materials.
7.装卸刀具时,应注意相邻刀具和夹辅具的凸出部分,使用的工具必须符合标准,以防伤手。
7. When the cutter is loaded and unloaded, pay attention to the protruding part of the cutter and the clamping accessory. The tool used should be in line with the standard so as not to hurt hands.
8.夹具和刀具要安装牢靠。用手卸工件时,要等卡盘停稳后,再取下工件,严禁用手接触旋转体进行刹车。装卸工件后要及时取下扳手。
8. The clamp and cutter should be firmly installed. When workpieces are removed by hand, remove them after the chuck is stable. Forbid to touch the revolving solid for braking. Take off the spanner in time after loading and unloading workpieces.
9.机床各走刀限位装置的螺丝必须拧紧,并要经常检查防止松动。道料定位装置必须完好,防止道料伸出长度失控发生事故。
9. The screws on all feed limit devices of the machine tool should be tightened, and checked usually for looseness. The positioning device should be good, in order that the length of the outstretched material will not be out of control to cause accidents. 10.工作时,禁止用手去触动自动换位装置或用手去摸机床附件和工件。调整限位挡块、换刀、上料、卸工件、清理铁屑都应停车后进行。
10. During operation, forbid to touch the device of changing places automatically or accessories and workpieces of the machine tool by hand. Adjust the limit stop, and start to change the cutter, feed materials, remove workpieces and clean iron scraps after the operation is paused.
11.加工材料车尾伸出部分超过200毫米应套上套料筒,料筒螺钉必须拧紧。严禁在设备运行时移动送料,严禁用手直接送料。
11. During processing, if the outstretched part from the rear is more than 200mm, it should be covered with the sleeve, and the sleeve should be tightened by screws. Forbid to remove materials when the equipment runs, and forbid to feed materials by hand. 12.转动六角刀架时,必须移到安全位置,注意不要被凸出的刀或刀杆碰伤,小六角车床如开车送料时,严禁用手直接送料。
12. The hexagon tool rest should be removed to safe position when it is rotated. Be careful not to be hurt by the protruding knife or knife bar. Do not feed materials by hand when the small hexagon machine tool starts to feed materials.
13.自动车床禁止使用锉刀、刮刀、砂布在机床上打光工件。
13. The automatic lathe prohibits to polishing workpieces on the machine tool by file, scraper and emery cloth.
14.切削时,必须将防护挡板挡好。发现异常情况,应立即停车检查。
14. When cutting, the baffle plate should be installed rightly. Stop to check it immediately if there is anything abnormal.
15.机床运转时,禁止随意离开,自动车床多机管理时,应逐台机床巡回查看。
15. When the machine tool is running, do not leave arbitrarily. Check machine tools one by one when managing multiple automatic lathes.

 

热冲压属于特种锻造工艺,它是一种生产率高而又精密的压力加工方法,它利用冲头的压入作用,使放在凹模中的热金属产生定向塑性变形。
Hot stamping is a special forging process and is also a machining method with high productivity and accuracy. It uses pressure action of punch head to form oriented plastic deformation of hot metal in cavity die.

热冲压工艺比较简单,加工工序少,生产率比模椴高,便于大批量生产和实现机械化。热冲压得到的零件可以保证金属纤维组织不被切断,而且能使纤维组织沿零件轮廓分布;另外由于挤压时坯料是三向受压,这种应力状态能提高金属的塑性,增加金属的变形程度,从而可以获得较细的晶粒组织,使零件的机械性能得到提高。目前,国内外大口径炮弹厂广泛采用热冲压工艺来获得弹体毛坯。
Hot stamping process is a simple with little machining procedures and higher productivity compared to die forging which and facilitates scale production and realization of mechanization. The parts obtained by hot stamping can ensure that metal fiber structure can not be destructed but metal structure can be distributed along profile of part. In addition, the extruded billet is pressed in three directions. This stress status can improve metal plasticity and strengthen deformation degree of metal so that it can obtain smaller grain structure to improve mechanical performance of part. At present, domestic factory manufacturing large caliber cartridge is widely using hot stamping process to make billet of projectile body.

 

在外力作用下引起的金属变形分为弹性变形和塑性变形两种。弹性变形后的金属在去掉外力后,仍能恢复原来的尺寸和形状。而塑性变形后即使去掉外力,金属也不能恢复原来的形状,而是发生了永久变形。热冲压属于塑性变形。
Metal deformation caused by exogenic action includes elastic deformation and plastic deformation. The metal with elastic deformation, after removing external force, can still resume its original size and shape, while the metal with plastic deformation, even if external force is removed, can not resume its original shape but remain a permanent deformation. Hot stamping falls within plastic deformation.

塑性变形时常用的有两个定律,就是体积不变定律和最小阻力定律。金属在热冲压过程中,变形前的体积等于变形后的体积。根据体积不变定律,可以对热冲压工艺中各工序尺寸进行计算。最小阻力定律是指金属在塑性变形中,质点在不同方向上沿着阻力最小的方向移动。最小阻力定律是说明金属在塑性变形时金属流动的规律性的定律。
The useful two rules during plastic deformation include invariant volume rule and minimum resistance rule. During hot stamping, volume of metal before deformation is equal to that after deformation. According to the invariant volume rule, various procedures and sizes for hot stamping process can be calculated. The minimum resistance rule refers to that mass point may move in the direction with the minimum resistance during plastic deformation of metal. The minimum resistance rule refers to regularity rule of metal flowing during plastic deformation.

在热冲压时,一般先把钢加热到一定温度,目的是为了降低钢的变形阻力,提高塑性,并使内部组织均匀。现在工厂中采用的加热方式一般有燃料和电两种。典型代表是天然气炉和中频加热炉。天然气炉加热优点是温度可靠,加热后坯料温度一致性好,适用范围广,缺点是耗能大,加热时间长,有氧化皮,且必须连续生产。中频炉加热优点是加热时间短,氧化皮少,缺点是有一定温度差,且一个炉膛只适用于一种规格的钢材。目前炮弹热冲压时一般都采用的中频加热。
During hot stamping, steel is generally heated to certain temperature to decrease deformation resistance of steel and improve plasticity in order to even internal structure of steel. At present, heating method used in factory includes fuel and electric modes. The typical examples are natural gas furnace and medium-frequency heating furnace. The advantage of natural gas heating furnace lies in the stable temperature. The heated billet has good consistency of temperature and wide applicable range. The shortcoming includes large energy consumption and long heating time, and oxide skin, and it must be manufactured continuously. The advantage of medium-frequency furnace includes short heating time and little oxide skin but certain temperature difference. At the same time, one furnace is only suitable for one kind of steel. At present, medium-frequency heating is usually used for hot stamping of cartridge.

 

加热时要严格控制加热时间和加热温度,否则要产生缺陷。加热时钢容易产生的缺陷有氧化皮、脱碳、过热、过烧、内部裂纹等。
During heating, it is necessary to strictly control time and temperature, or otherwise, it will produce defects. During heating, defects produced easily during heating metal includes oxide skin, decarburization,overheat, over-burned and internal crack etc.

热冲压设备主要有加热设备和冲压设备。加热设备常用的有环行加热炉和中频加热炉。冲压设备常用的分为水压机和油压机两种,水压机效率高但精度较差,油压机效率较低但精度高。随着热冲压工艺的发展,现在油压机已经发展并大规模应用起来,现代油压机的代表是三工位油压机。
Hot stamping equipments mainly include heating equipments and stamping equipments. Heating equipments generally include rotary hearth furnace and medium-frequency heating furnace. Stamping equipments mainly include water press and oil press. Water press has higher efficiency but poor accuracy. Oil press has lower efficiency but higher accuracy. With development of hot stamping process, at present, oil press has been developed and widely used. Typical representative of modern oil presses is 3-position oil press.

 

“卡沃尔” 产品的结构特征:
The structure of Culver products:

1、锥形轴紧固器:采用国内高品质产品,传递扭力牢固可靠。
1. Taper shaft tightener: Adopting domestic high-quality products, with firm and reliable transmission torque force.
2、精密斜齿同步齿轮:高精度螺旋硬面齿,高合金材料制作,强度高、寿命长、运转平稳、噪音小。
2. Precision helical synchromesh gear: With high precision helical hard surface tooth; made of high alloy materials; with high strength, long operation life, smooth operation and low noise.
3、高承载轴承:固定端使用的是世界王牌SKF双列角接触轴承,能承受高转速、高的径向与轴向载荷,确保运行中有效的径向与轴向位置,从而有效的控制转子的运行位置。
3. High-load bearing: The fixed end has adopted SKF double row angular bearing that can bear high rotation speed and high radial and axial load to ensure effective radial and axial position during operation to effectively control the operation position of rotor.

浮动端使用的也是世界王牌SKF单列滚子轴承,除能承受高速大径向载荷外,并能随运行中发热而膨胀的轴向伸缩变形,大大提高运行能力和可靠性,且寿命长。
The floating end has adopted SKF single row roller bearing which can not only bear high speed big radial load but also flexibly change with the variation of axis caused by heat expansion during the operation, greatly improving the operation capacity, reliability and durability.

4、密封:密封部位气室与油箱相互分隔,确保压缩过程无污染,气室与油箱均用密宫式气膜和油膜密封,精确的配合保证偶合密封件在运转中既不相互磨擦磨损,又不渗漏,确保使用寿命。外部轴伸部位使用氟胶双唇密封,均为世界名牌,寿命长,且便于更换。
4. Sealing: The air chamber and the oil tank at the seal position must be segregated to ensure that no pollution is to occur during the compression process. Both the air chamber and the oil tank must be sealed with the air film and the oil film to ensure that no abrasion and leakage will occur during the operation of coupling seals. In addition, the external shaft extension position should be sealed with international high-quality viton double-lip seal that is durable and easy to replace.
5、缸体、转子、端座:其材质均为高强度球铁,加工精度高,转子叶型尺寸误差全长在0.03以内,动不平衡量≤1g,气缸、端座等重要关键零部件的几何精度与尺寸精度加工精确,表面粗糙度高、一致性好,所有零部件均能互换,为确保装配质量和运转的平稳、高效打下了良好的基础。
5. Cylinder body, rotor and base: All are made of high strength bulb iron with high processing precision. The leaf dimension error of rotor is within 0.03 while dynamic unbalance is ≤1g. To ensure assembly quality and smooth and efficient operation, key parts such as cylinder and base must have high geometric and dimensional accuracy, together with high surface roughness and good consistency, while all those parts are interchangeable.
6.质量保证:装配人员经过长期、优良的培训,每个环节都有专人严格把关,每台装配后都经过打滑试验与性能试验,并有装配及试验记录,确保产品出厂质量和质量追踪。
6. Quality assurance: All assembly workers of the company have received long-term and excellent trainings, and every link of production has been in the strict control of specially-assigned persons. In addition, corresponding slipping and performance tests have been carried out after assembly, with detailed assembly and test records, to ensure the quality and quality traceability of Culver products.

 

LD电动单梁起重机(以下简称起重机)是按JB/T1306-1994《LD电动单梁起重机》设计制造的,与CD1、MD1等形式的电动葫芦配套使用,成为一种有轨运行的轻小型起重机,其适用起重量为1~5t、跨度为7.5~22.5m、工作级别A5(中级)。经专门设计可在环境温度在-40~60℃范围内工作。
LD electric single-girder crane (crane for short) is designed and manufactured according to JB/T1306-1994 LD Electric Single-girder Crane. Being used with electric hoist in CD1、MD1 forms, this light and small crane with rail operation applies to 1-5t hoisting capacity, 7.5-22.5m span, A5 work level (middle level). With special design, it can work under the environment temperature of -40~60℃.

 

本产品为一般用途起重机,多用于机械制造、装配、仓库等场所。其结构特点如下:
This product is a regular crane widely used at places of machinery manufacture, assembling and warehouse, etc. The structure features as follows:

1、 金属结构部份
1. Metallic structure
主梁采用钢板与工字钢组焊成箱形实腹梁,端梁也是用钢板组焊成箱形结构。为贮存、运输方便,主端梁螺栓联接成为一体。
The main girder applies a box type solid web girder welded by steel plate and I-iron; the end girder also applies the box type structure. For convenience of storage and transportation, the main end girder bolts are connected as a whole.
2、 电动葫芦
2. Electric hoist
电动葫芦用于起升重物,并沿主梁纵向移动,其结构特点详见电动葫芦说明书。
The electric hoist is used for hoisting heavy object, moving longitudinally along the main girder. For structure details, please refer to the specification of the electric hoist.
3、 运行机构
3. Operating mechanism
本产品是采用分别驱动形式。驱制动靠锥形制动电机来完成,传动是采用“一开一闭”式齿轮传动,其闭式齿轮部份是专用减速机。
This product applies individual drive mode. Drive and brake are made by conical braking motor. Transmission applies the gear transmission of “one open, one close”; the close gear applies special speed reducer.
4、 电气设备
4. Electrical equipment
本产品所用运行电机为双速锥形鼠笼软启动电动机(用于运行速度15/30m/min的地面操纵)。电动葫芦及整个起重机均设有安全装置,如起升限位开关,大车终点限位开关等。
The operation motor of this product is double-speed conical cage soft start motor (for ground operation at speed of 15/30m/min). Safety device is set for electric hoist and the whole carne, e.g.: hoist limit switch, crane end point limit switch, etc.
5、 本产品规定表示方法如下:
5. Stipulated expression of this product:
例:起重量3t;跨度10.5m;运行速度30m/min.
E.g.: hoisting capacity 3t; span 10.5m; operating speed 30m/min.

表示方法:LD3-10.5-30
Expression: LD3-10.5-30

 

1、在用户现场将起重机运行机构的驱动装置安装在端梁上。按图2所示,将主梁用螺栓联接起来,应注意此处螺栓为专用螺栓。(材料为45钢特制螺栓),其性能可以保证主、端梁的联接强度。为更安全其见,允许用户按图2所示的a、b、c处稍加间断施焊,但不宜焊得太满,以防变形。
1. Install the driving device of the operating mechanism onto the end girder at the user’s site. As Figure 2, connect the main girders with bolts. Note: bolts applied here shall be special ones (made of 45 steel) whose performance can guarantee the connection strength of the main and end girders. For better safety, users are allowed to carry out intermittent welding at a, b, c shown in Figure 2; do not weld too much to avoid deformation.
2. 主、端联接面在组装后可按标准JB/T1306-94中的有关要求进行检验。主梁同端梁联接面在组装前应清理毛刺及污垢。
2. After installation, the junction surface of the main and end girders shall apply inspection according to requirement of standard JB/T1306-94. Before assembly, burr and dirt of the junction surface of the main and end girders shall be cleaned.
3、将起重机的终点行程开关及开关箱等电器组装到端梁上,接通有关电器部分,调试两台运行电机,使其转向一致。
3. Install electrical devices including the end point switch and switch box of crane on the end girder, connect relevant electrical parts, and debug the two operating motors to have the same operation direction.
4、电动葫芦可预先安装在主梁上,同起重机一起架设在轨道上,也可以分别架设。
4. Electric hoist can be installed on the main girder in advance. Electric hoist and crane can be set on the rail together or separately.
5、参照图3或图4架设电源滑触线装置,安全滑触线安装按相关要求进行。
5. According to Figure 3 or Figure 4, install the power sliding contact coil device. For safe installation, please install according to relevant requirement.
6、按随机电气图安装联接电气线路,安装后必须保证起重机动作,方向与操作按钮所规定的方向一致。
6. Install the electric circuit according to electrical diagram provided with the machine. After installation, the movement of crane shall be guaranteed. The direction shall be the same with the stipulated direction of operation button.
7、用户可按图5参考架设阻进器和安全尺。
7. Users can set movement stop device and safety ruler according to Figure 5.
8、在起重机架设之前,用户可按图6及表3选择轨道,车轮轮槽宽与轨道面应保证有一定的
间隙△≈8~12mm,轨道架设时应保证以下几点要求:
8. Before crane installation, users can choose rail according to Figure 6 and Table 3. The certain distance between wheel groove and rail surface shall be guaranteed, △≈8-12mm. For rail installation, the following requirements shall be guaranteed:

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